Native-speakers of English
Specific expressive language difficulties may be developmental, aquired through injury, the presence of tumours or stroke. If Broca's Area in the brain has been affected, for example, the resulting malady is known as 'Expressive Aphasia' or Broca's Aphasia, which is associated with effortful speech, connective difficulties (the result of the omission of grammatical words and inflections) and deficient prosodic patterns (intonation, stress, pitch, loudness). People with such difficulties are initially assessed and treated by expert consultants.
Continued therapeutic intervention is vital, focussing on the following specific difficulties:
Absence of variation in prosody (intonation, pitch, stress, loudness).
Absence of syntactical awareness (words appear in the wrong place) in sentence formation.
Limited vocabulary and word retrieval problems.
Absence of awareness of specific language genres (description, explanation, narrative, discussion, etc.) and the ability to sequence adequately.
The use of vague words and expressions.
Lack of pragmatic language and difficulty with small talk.
Omission of grammatical words (the, a, that, etc.) and inflections (bound morphemes).
Non-Native Speakers of English
Some speakers of other languages who have spent many years learning English and who are fluent and accurate in the production of speech, still struggle to be understood. This is caused on the one hand, by the phonological interference - both segmental (individual sounds) and suprasegmental (prosodic patterns) - of their mother language, and on the other hand by too much pedagogical focus on written English, and insufficient pedagogical focus on the 44 discrete sounds (phonemes) – especially the 20 vowel sounds .
It is vital to carry out a detailed phonological assessment of such clients in order to design a suitable individual learning plan.
Translation into and from various languages into and from English - in the fields of law, technology, and history